Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Nature of Operations — Our business is comprised of two business lines: (1) Drilling Services and (2) Rental Tools Services. We report our Drilling Services business as two reportable segments: (1) U.S. (Lower 48) Drilling and (2) International & Alaska Drilling. We report our Rental Tools Services business as two reportable segments: (1) U.S. Rental Tools and (2) International Rental Tools.
In our Drilling Services business, we drill oil, natural gas and geothermal wells for customers in both the U.S. and international markets. We provide this service with both Company-owned rigs and customer-owned rigs. We refer to the provision of drilling services with customer-owned rigs as our operations and management (“O&M”) service in which operators own their own drilling rigs but choose Parker Drilling to operate and manage the rigs for them. The nature and scope of activities involved in drilling an oil and natural gas well is similar whether it is drilled with a Company-owned rig (as part of a traditional drilling contract) or a customer-owned rig (as part of an O&M contract). In addition, we provide project-related services, such as engineering, procurement, project management and commissioning of customer-owned drilling rig projects. We have extensive experience and expertise in drilling geologically challenging wells and in managing the logistical and technological challenges of operating in remote, harsh and ecologically sensitive areas.
Our U.S. (Lower 48) Drilling segment provides drilling services with our Gulf of Mexico (“GOM”) barge drilling rig fleet, and markets our U.S. (Lower 48)-based O&M services. Our GOM barge drilling fleet operates barge rigs that drill for oil and natural gas in shallow waters in and along the inland waterways and coasts of Louisiana, Alabama and Texas. The majority of these wells are drilled in shallow water depths ranging from 6 to 12 feet. Our rigs are suitable for a variety of drilling programs, from inland coastal waters requiring shallow draft barges, to open water drilling on both state and federal water projects requiring more robust capabilities. The barge drilling industry in the GOM is characterized by cyclical activity where utilization and dayrates are typically driven by oil and natural gas prices and our customers’ access to project financing. Contract terms typically consist of well-to-well or multi-well programs, most commonly ranging from 20 to 180 days.
Our International & Alaska Drilling segment provides drilling services, using both Company-owned rigs and O&M contracts, and project-related services. The drilling markets in which this segment operates have one or more of the following characteristics:
During the year ended December 31, 2017, we had rigs operating on Sakhalin Island, Russia and in Alaska, Kazakhstan, the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, and Guatemala. In addition, we had O&M and ongoing project-related services for customer-owned rigs in Kuwait, Canada and on Sakhalin Island, Russia.
In our Rental Tools Services business, we provide premium rental equipment and services to exploration & production (“E&P”) companies, drilling contractors and service companies on land and offshore in the U.S. and select international markets. Tools we provide include standard and heavy-weight drill pipe, all of which are available with standard or high-torque connections, tubing, drill collars, pressure control equipment, including blowout preventers and more. We also provide well construction services, which include tubular running services and downhole tool rentals, well intervention services, which include whipstock, fishing and related services, and inspection and machine shop support. Rental tools are used during drilling and/or workover programs and are requested by the customer as needed, requiring us to keep a broad inventory of rental tools in stock. Rental tools are usually rented on a daily or monthly basis.
Our U.S. Rental Tools segment is headquartered in New Iberia, Louisiana. We maintain an inventory of rental tools for deepwater, drilling, completion, workover, and production applications at facilities in Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, Wyoming, North Dakota and West Virginia. Our largest single market for rental tools is U.S. land drilling, a cyclical market driven primarily by oil and natural gas prices and our customers’ access to project financing. A portion of our U.S. rental tools business is supplying tubular goods and other equipment to offshore GOM customers.
Our International Rental Tools segment is headquartered in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. We maintain an inventory of rental tools and provide well construction, well intervention, and surface and tubular services to our customers in the Middle East, Latin America, United Kingdom, Europe, and Asia-Pacific regions.
We have operated in over 50 countries since beginning operations in 1934, making us among the most geographically experienced drilling contractors and rental tools providers in the world. We currently have operations in 19 countries. Parker has set numerous world records for deep and extended-reach drilling land rigs and is an industry leader in quality, health, safety and environmental practices.
Consolidation — The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and subsidiaries in which we exercise control or have a controlling financial interest, including entities, if any, in which the Company is allocated a majority of the entity’s losses or returns, regardless of ownership percentage. If a subsidiary of Parker Drilling has a 50 percent interest in an entity but Parker Drilling’s interest in the subsidiary or the entity does not meet the consolidation criteria described above, then that interest is accounted for under the equity method.
Noncontrolling Interest — We apply accounting standards related to noncontrolling interests for ownership interests in our subsidiaries held by parties other than Parker Drilling. We report noncontrolling interest as equity on the consolidated balance sheets and report net income (loss) attributable to controlling interest and to noncontrolling interest separately on the consolidated statements of operations.
Reclassifications — Certain reclassifications have been made to prior period amounts to conform to the current period presentation. These reclassifications did not materially affect our consolidated financial results.
Revenue Recognition — Drilling revenues and expenses, comprised of daywork drilling contracts, call-outs against master service agreements and engineering and related project service contracts, are recognized as services are performed and collection is reasonably assured. For certain contracts, we receive payments contractually designated for the mobilization of rigs and other drilling equipment. Mobilization payments received, and direct costs incurred for the mobilization, are deferred and recognized over the primary term of the related drilling contract; however, costs incurred to relocate rigs and other drilling equipment to areas in which a contract has not been secured are expensed as incurred. For contracts that are terminated prior to the specified term, early termination payments received by us are recognized as revenues when all contractual requirements are met. Revenues from rental activities are recognized ratably over the rental term, which is generally less than six months. Our project-related services contracts include engineering, consulting, and project management scopes of work and revenue is typically recognized on a time and materials basis.
Reimbursable Revenues — The Company recognizes reimbursements received for out-of-pocket expenses incurred as revenues and accounts for out-of-pocket expenses as direct operating costs. Such amounts totaled $57.8 million, $69.3 million, and $87.8 million during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively. Additionally, the Company typically receives a nominal handling fee, which is recognized as earned in revenues in our consolidated statement of operations.
Use of Estimates — The preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting policies generally accepted in the United States (U.S. GAAP) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect our reported amounts of assets and liabilities, our disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and our revenues and expenses during the periods reported. Estimates are typically used when accounting for certain significant items such as legal or contractual liability accruals, mobilization and deferred mobilization, self-insured medical/dental plans, income taxes and valuation allowance, and other items requiring the use of estimates. Estimates are based on a number of variables which may include third party valuations, historical experience, where applicable, and assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. Due to the inherent uncertainty involved with estimates, actual results may differ from management estimates.
Purchase Price Allocation — We allocate the purchase price of an acquired business to its identifiable assets and liabilities in accordance with the acquisition method based on estimated fair values at the transaction date. Transaction and integration costs associated with an acquisition are expensed as incurred. The excess of the purchase price over the amount allocated to the assets and liabilities, if any, is recorded as goodwill. We use all available information to estimate fair values, including quoted market prices, the carrying value of acquired assets, and widely accepted valuation techniques such as discounted cash flows. We typically engage third-party appraisal firms to assist in fair value determination of inventories, identifiable intangible assets, and any other significant assets or liabilities. Judgments made in determining the estimated fair value assigned to each class of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, as well as asset lives, can materially impact our results of operations.
Goodwill — We perform our annual goodwill impairment review during the fourth quarter, as of October 1, and more frequently if negative conditions or other triggering events arise. The quantitative impairment test we perform for goodwill utilizes certain assumptions, including forecasted revenues and costs assumptions. See Note 2 - Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets for further discussion.
Intangible Assets — Our intangible assets are related to trade names, customer relationships, and developed technology, which were acquired through acquisition and are classified as definite lived intangibles, that are generally amortized over a weighted average period of approximately three to six years. We assess the recoverability of the unamortized balance of our intangible assets when indicators of impairment are present based on expected future profitability and undiscounted expected cash flows and their contribution to our overall operations. Should the review indicate that the carrying value is not fully recoverable, the excess of the carrying value over the fair value of the intangible assets would be recognized as an impairment loss. See Note 2 - Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets for further discussion.
Cash and Cash Equivalents — For purposes of the consolidated balance sheets and the consolidated statements of cash flows, the Company considers cash equivalents to be highly liquid debt instruments that have a remaining maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Bad Debt — Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoice amount and typically do not bear interest. The allowance for bad debt is estimated for losses that may occur resulting from disputed amounts and the inability of our customers to pay amounts owed. We estimate the allowance based on historical write-off experience and information about specific customers. We review individually, for collectability, all balances over 90 days past due as well as balances due from any customer with respect to which we have information leading us to believe that a risk exists for potential collection.
Account balances are charged off against the allowance when we believe it is probable the receivable will not be recovered. We do not have any off-balance-sheet credit exposure related to customers.
The components of our accounts receivable, net of allowance for bad debt balance are as follows:
Property, Plant and Equipment — Property, plant and equipment is carried at cost. Maintenance and most repair costs are expensed as incurred. The cost of upgrades and replacements is capitalized. The Company capitalizes software developed or obtained for internal use. Accordingly, the cost of third-party software, as well as the cost of third-party and internal personnel that are directly involved in application development activities, are capitalized during the application development phase of new software systems projects. Costs during the preliminary project stage and post-implementation stage of new software systems projects, including data conversion and training costs, are expensed as incurred. We account for depreciation of property, plant and equipment on the straight line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets after provision for salvage value. Depreciation, for tax purposes, utilizes several methods of accelerated depreciation. Depreciable lives for different categories of property, plant and equipment are as follows:
Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the term of the lease.
Impairment — We evaluate the carrying amounts of long-lived assets for potential impairment when events occur or circumstances change that indicate the carrying values of such assets may not be recoverable. We evaluate recoverability by determining the undiscounted estimated future net cash flows for the respective asset groups identified. If the sum of the estimated undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying value of the asset group, we measure the impairment as the amount by which the assets’ carrying value exceeds the fair value of such assets. Management considers a number of factors such as estimated future cash flows from the assets, appraisals and current market value analysis in determining fair value. Assets are written down to fair value if the final estimate of current fair value is below the net carrying value. The assumptions used in the impairment evaluation are inherently uncertain and require management judgment.
Capitalized Interest — Interest from external borrowings is capitalized on major projects until the assets are ready for their intended use. Capitalized interest is added to the cost of the underlying asset and is amortized over the useful lives of the assets in the same manner as the underlying assets. Capitalized interest costs reduce net interest expense in the consolidated statements of operations. During 2017 capitalized interest costs were nominal. Capitalized interest costs were $0.2 million and $0.2 million during 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Assets Held for Sale — We classify an asset as held for sale when the facts and circumstances meet the criteria for such classification, including the following: (a) we have committed to a plan to sell the asset, (b) the asset is available for immediate sale, (c) we have initiated actions to complete the sale, including locating a buyer, (d) the sale is expected to be completed within one year, (e) the asset is being actively marketed at a price that is reasonable relative to its fair value, and (f) the plan to sell is unlikely to be subject to significant changes or termination.
Rig Materials and Supplies — Because our international drilling generally occurs in remote locations, making timely outside delivery of spare parts uncertain, a complement of parts and supplies is maintained either at the drilling site or in warehouses close to the operation. During periods of high rig utilization, these parts are generally consumed and replenished within a one-year period. During a period of lower rig utilization in a particular location, the parts, like the related idle rigs, are generally not transferred to other international locations until new contracts are obtained because of the significant transportation costs that would result from such transfers. We classify those parts which are not expected to be utilized in the following year as long-term assets. Additionally, our international rental tools business holds machine shop consumables and steel stock for manufacture in our machine shops and inspection and repair shops, which are classified as current assets. Rig materials and supplies are valued at the lower of cost or market value.
Deferred Costs — We defer costs related to rig mobilization and amortize such costs over the primary term of the related contract. The costs to be amortized within twelve months are classified as current.
Debt Issuance Costs — We typically defer costs associated with issuance of indebtedness, and amortize those costs over the term of the related debt using the effective interest method.
Income Taxes — Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method and have been provided for based upon tax laws and rates in effect in the countries in which operations are conducted and income or losses are generated. There is little or no expected relationship between the provision for or benefit from income taxes and income or loss before income taxes as the countries in which we operate have taxation regimes that vary not only with respect to nominal rate, but also in terms of the availability of deductions, credits, and other benefits. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled and the effect of changes in tax rates is recognized in income in the period in which the change is enacted. Valuation allowances are established to reduce deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. In order to determine the amount of deferred tax assets or liabilities, as well as the valuation allowances, we must make estimates and assumptions regarding future taxable income, where rigs will be deployed and other matters. Changes in these estimates and assumptions, including changes in tax laws and other changes impacting our ability to recognize the underlying deferred tax assets, could require us to adjust the valuation allowances.
The Company recognizes the effect of income tax positions only if those positions are more likely than not to be sustained. Recognized income tax positions are measured at the largest amount that is greater than 50 percent likely of being realized and changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which the change in judgment occurs.
Earnings (Loss) Per Share (EPS) — Basic earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. The effects of dilutive securities, stock options, unvested restricted stock and convertible debt are included in the diluted EPS calculation, when applicable.
Concentrations of Credit Risk — Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of trade receivables with a variety of national and international oil and natural gas companies. We generally do not require collateral on our trade receivables. We depend on a limited number of significant customers. In 2017, our largest customer, Exxon Neftegas Limited (ENL), constituted approximately 31.3 percent of our consolidated revenues. Excluding reimbursable revenues of $50.8 million, ENL constituted approximately 22.7 percent of our total consolidated revenues. In 2017, our second largest customer, BP Exploration Alaska, Inc. (BP), constituted approximately 9.7 percent of our consolidated revenues.
As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, we had deposits in domestic banks in excess of federally insured limits of approximately $97.6 million and $81.4 million, respectively. In addition, we had uninsured deposits in foreign banks as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 of $45.6 million and $39.7 million, respectively.
Fair Value Measurements — For purposes of recording fair value adjustments for certain financial and non-financial assets and liabilities, and determining fair value disclosures, we estimate fair value at a price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants in the principal market for the asset or liability. Our valuation technique requires inputs that we categorize using a three-level hierarchy, from highest to lowest level of observable inputs, as follows: (1) unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in active markets (Level 1), (2) direct or indirect observable inputs, including quoted prices or other market data, for similar assets or liabilities in active markets or identical assets or liabilities in less active markets (Level 2) and (3) unobservable inputs that require significant judgment for which there is little or no market data (Level 3). When multiple input levels are required for a valuation, we categorize the entire fair value measurement according to the lowest level of input that is significant to the measurement even though we may have also utilized significant inputs that are more readily observable.
Foreign Currency — In our international rental tool business, for certain subsidiaries and branches outside the U.S., the local currency is the functional currency. The financial statements of these subsidiaries and branches are translated into U.S. dollars as follows: (i) assets and liabilities at month-end exchange rates; (ii) income, expenses and cash flows at monthly average exchange rates or exchange rates in effect on the date of the transaction; and (iii) stockholders’ equity at historical exchange rates. For those subsidiaries where the local currency is the functional currency, the resulting translation adjustment is recorded as a component of accumulated other elements of comprehensive income (loss) in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
Stock-Based Compensation — Under our long term incentive plan, we are authorized to issue the following: stock options; stock appreciation rights; restricted stock awards; restricted stock units; performance-based awards; and other types of awards in cash or stock to key employees, consultants, and directors. We typically grant restricted stock units (“RSUs”), performance cash units (“PCUs”), performance-based phantom stock units and time-based phantom stock units.
Stock-based compensation expense is recognized, net of an estimated forfeiture rate, which is based on historical experience and adjusted, if necessary, in subsequent periods based on actual forfeitures. We recognize stock-based compensation expense in the same financial statement line item as cash compensation paid to the respective employees. Tax deduction benefits for awards in excess of recognized compensation costs are reported as an operating cash flow.
Legal and Investigation Matters — We accrue estimates of the probable and estimable costs for the resolution of certain legal and investigation matters. We do not accrue any amounts for other matters for which the liability is not probable and reasonably estimable. Generally, the estimate of probable costs related to these matters is developed in consultation with our legal advisors. The estimates take into consideration factors such as the complexity of the issues, litigation risks and settlement costs. If the actual settlement costs, final judgments, or fines, after appeals, differ from our estimates, our future financial results may be adversely affected.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef