Fresh Start Accounting
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2019
|Fresh Start Accounting||
Note 2 - Chapter 11 Emergence
On December 12, 2018, prior to the commencement of the Chapter 11 Cases, the Debtors entered into a restructuring support agreement (as amended on January 28, 2019, the “RSA”) with certain significant holders of (1) 7.50% Senior Notes, due 2020 (the “7.50% Note Holders”) issued pursuant to the indenture (the “7.50% Notes Indenture”) dated July 30, 2013 (the “7.50% Notes”), by and among Parker Drilling, the subsidiary guarantors party thereto and Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A., as trustee (the “Trustee”), (2) 6.75% Senior Notes, due 2022 (the “6.75% Note Holders”) issued pursuant to the indenture (the “6.75% Notes Indenture”) dated January 22, 2014 (the “6.75% Notes” and together with the 7.50% Notes, the “Senior Notes”), by and among Parker Drilling, the subsidiary guarantors party thereto and the Trustee, (3) Parker Drilling’s existing common stock (the “Predecessor Common Stock”) and (4) Parker Drilling’s 7.25% Series A Mandatory Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Predecessor Preferred Stock” and such holders to support a restructuring (the “Restructuring”) on the terms set forth in the Plan.
On the Petition Date, the Debtors filed voluntary petitions for reorganization under chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of Texas pursuant to a prearranged plan of reorganization. The Plan was confirmed by the Bankruptcy Court on March 7, 2019, and the Debtors emerged from the bankruptcy proceedings on March 26, 2019.
References to “Successor” relate to the consolidated condensed statement of operations or consolidated condensed balance sheet of the reorganized Company as of and subsequent to March 31, 2019. References to “Predecessor” relate to the consolidated condensed balance sheet of the Company prior to, and consolidated condensed statement of operations through and including, March 31, 2019.
On March 26, 2019:
Any expenses, gains and losses that are realized or incurred subsequent to and as a direct result of the Chapter 11 Cases are recorded under reorganization items on our consolidated condensed statement of operations.
Reorganization items consisted of:
Supplemental cash flow information related to reorganization items paid is as follows:
Debtor in Possession Financing
Amounts outstanding against the debtor in possession financing facility were $10.0 million as of December 31, 2018. The debtor in possession financing facility was terminated as of March 26, 2019.
Liabilities Subject To Compromise
Pre-petition unsecured and under-secured obligations that could have been impacted by the Chapter 11 Cases have been classified as liabilities subject to compromise on our Predecessor consolidated condensed balance sheet. These liabilities were reported at the amounts allowed as claims by the Bankruptcy Court.
Liabilities subject to compromise consisted of:
Contractual interest expense for the three months ended March 31, 2019, on our senior notes was $10.3 million; however, no interest expense was accrued on the senior notes, as they were impaired and extinguished upon emergence. See also Note 6 - Debt for further details.
Note 3 - Fresh Start Accounting
Upon emergence from bankruptcy, we adopted fresh start accounting (“Fresh Start Accounting”) in accordance with Topic 852, which resulted in the Company becoming a new entity for financial reporting purposes. In accordance with Topic 852, the Company is required to adopt Fresh Start Accounting upon its emergence from bankruptcy because (1) the holders of the then existing common shares of the Predecessor received less than 50 percent of the new common shares of the Successor outstanding upon emergence and (2) the reorganization value of the Company’s assets immediately prior to confirmation of the Plan was less than the total of all post-petition liabilities and allowed claims.
Upon adoption of Fresh Start Accounting, the reorganization value derived from the enterprise value as disclosed in the Plan was allocated to the Company’s assets and liabilities based on their fair values (except for deferred income taxes) in accordance with FASB ASC Topic No. 805 - Business Combinations. The amount of deferred income taxes recorded was determined in accordance with FASB ASC Topic No. 740 - Income Taxes.
We evaluated the events between March 26, 2019 and March 31, 2019 and concluded that the use of an accounting convenience date of March 31, 2019 (“Fresh Start Reporting Date”) would not have a material impact on our consolidated condensed statement of operations or consolidated condensed balance sheet. As such, the application of fresh start accounting was reflected in our condensed consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2019 and fresh start accounting adjustments related thereto were included in our consolidated condensed statement of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2019.
As a result of the adoption of Fresh Start Accounting and the effects of the implementation of the Plan, the consolidated condensed financial statements of the Successor, are not comparable to the consolidated condensed financial statements of the Predecessor.
The Company’s consolidated condensed financial statements and related footnotes are presented with a “black line” division, which emphasizes the lack of comparability between amounts presented as of and after March 31, 2019 and amounts presented for all prior periods. The Company’s financial results for future periods following the application of Fresh Start Accounting will be different from historical trends and the differences may be material.
Under Topic 852, the Successor determined a value to be assigned to the equity of the emerging entity as of the date of adoption of Fresh Start Accounting. The Plan confirmed by the Bankruptcy Court estimated a range of enterprise values between $365.0 million and $485.0 million, with a midpoint of $425.0 million. The Company deemed it appropriate to use the midpoint between the low end and high end of the range to determine the final enterprise value of $425.0 million.
The following table reconciles the enterprise value to the estimated fair value of our Successor Common Stock as of the Fresh Start Reporting Date:
The following table reconciles the enterprise value to the reorganization value of the Successor’s assets to be allocated to the Company’s individual assets as of the Fresh Start Reporting Date:
With the assistance of financial advisors, we determined the enterprise and corresponding equity value of the Successor by calculating the present value of future cash flows based on our financial projections. The enterprise value and corresponding equity value are dependent upon achieving the future financial results set forth in our valuations, as well as the realization of
certain other assumptions. All estimates, assumptions, valuations and financial projections, including the fair value adjustments, the enterprise value and equity value projections, are inherently subject to significant uncertainties and the resolution of contingencies beyond our control. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that the estimates, assumptions, valuations or financial projections will be realized, and actual results could vary materially.
The fair values of the Company’s principal assets, including drilling equipment, rental tools, real property, and intangible assets were estimated with the assistance of third party valuation advisors. The income approach, market approach, and the cost approach were considered for estimating the value of each individual asset. Although the income approach was not applied to value the machinery and equipment and real property assets individually, the Company did consider the earnings of the reporting unit within which each of these assets reside. Economic obsolescence related to machinery and equipment and real property was also considered and was applied to stacked and underutilized assets based upon the status of the asset. Economic obsolescence was also considered in situations in which the earnings of the applicable reporting unit in which the assets are employed suggest economic obsolescence. When penalizing assets for economic obsolescence, an additional economic obsolescence penalty was levied, while considering scrap value to be the floor value for an asset. Because more than one approach was used to develop a valuation, the various approaches were reconciled to determine a final value conclusion. The reorganization value was allocated to the Company’s individual assets and liabilities based on their fair values as follows:
Rig Materials and Supplies
The fair value of the rig materials and supplies was determined using the direct and indirect cost approaches. The rig materials and supplies were analyzed on a line-by-line basis and each asset was adjusted for age, physical depreciation, and obsolescence.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Building, Land and Improvements
The fair value of the land assets was estimated using the sales comparison (market) approach, which involved gathering data on comparable sales and current listings of land in each subject market, then adjusting the unit price (per acre or per square foot) of each comparable for differences in market conditions, location, size, and other factors. A per unit value conclusion was then determined based on the adjusted prices of the comparable sales and listings. Fair value of buildings and improvements was estimated using the direct cost approach, in which the estimated replacement cost new of the improvements was adjusted for accrued physical depreciation and any functional or external obsolescence. As a supporting approach, the total fair value of all real property assets for each location was estimated using the sales comparison (or market approach). Held for sale assets were included at their respective pending or listed prices. The fair value of the leasehold improvements was determined using the cost approach, adjusted as needed for asset type, age, physical deterioration and obsolescence.
The fair value of the rental tools was determined using a combination of the cost approach and sales comparison (market) approach depending upon the asset type. The fair value utilizing the cost approach was adjusted as needed for asset type, age, physical deterioration, and obsolescence. For assets where an active secondary market exists, we utilized the sales comparison (market) approach to estimate the fair value of the assets, which involved gathering market data and analyzing comparable sales of similar assets.
The fair value of the drilling equipment was determined using a combination of the discounted cash flow method (income approach), the cost approach, and the sales comparison (market) approach. The income approach was utilized to estimate the fair value of drilling equipment that generated positive returns on projected cash flows over the remaining economic useful life of the drilling equipment and compared to the fair value utilizing the cost approach, adjusted as needed for asset type, age, physical deterioration and obsolescence. For assets where an active secondary market exists we utilized the sales comparison (market) approach to estimate the fair value of the assets, which involved gathering market data and analyzing comparable sales of similar assets.
We applied the income approach methodology to estimate the value of the customer relationships, trade name, and developed technology. We determined the value of the customer relationships based on the present value of the incremental after-tax cash flows attributable only to the intangible asset. The value of the trade name was estimated through the relief from royalty
method based on the present value of the cost savings realized by the owner of the asset as a result of not having to pay a stream of royalty payments to another party. The cost savings were based on hypothetical royalty payments of 0.2 percent of revenue reflecting a rate in which an arm’s length buyer would typically pay for the use of such intangible assets. Similar to the methodology used to value the trade name, we determined the value of the developed technology using a hypothetical royalty payment of 1.0 percent of revenue to reflect the attributable cost savings. The present value of the after-tax cash flows for all the Intangible Assets were estimated based on a discount rate of 20.0 percent.
The fair value of the Successor warrants was estimated by applying a Black-Scholes-Merton (“BSM”) model. The BSM model is a pricing model used to estimate the theoretical price or fair value for a European-style call or put option/warrant based on current stock price, strike price, time to maturity, risk-free rate, volatility, and dividend yield.
Consolidated Balance Sheet
The adjustments included in the following fresh start consolidated condensed balance sheet as of March 31, 2019 reflect the effects of the transactions contemplated by the Plan and executed by the Company on the Fresh Start Reporting Date (reflected in the column “Reorganization Adjustments”), and fair value and other required accounting adjustments resulting from the adoption of Fresh Start Accounting (reflected in the column “Fresh Start Adjustments”). The explanatory notes provide additional information with regard to the adjustments recorded, the methods used to determine the fair values and significant assumptions.
Fresh Start Accounting Adjustments
Changes reflect the cumulative impact of fresh start accounting adjustments discussed above and the elimination of Predecessor accumulated other comprehensive loss and Predecessor accumulated deficit.
The entire disclosure for the description and amounts of reorganization under Chapter 11 of the US Bankruptcy Code.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef